Amenorrhea — Know It All!

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All you need to know about Lazy Eye.

Know your ailment well, so you can manage it better!!

Here we come with Amenorrhea today!

What is Amenorrhea?

The lack of menstruation, one or two missing menstrual cycles, is amenorrhea. Amenorrhea is present in women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in a row, as are girls who have not started menstruation by the age of 15.

Pregnancy is the most prominent cause of amenorrhea. Some sources of amenorrhea include reproductive organs or gland disorders that help control the levels of hormones. Amenorrhea is mostly resolved by the management of the underlying disease.

There are periods, such as during puberty, during breastfeeding, and during menopause, that you are not expected to have your period. It should be checked if amenorrhea persists for longer than three months.

How does the menstrual cycle work?

The menstrual cycle is regulated by a complex system of hormones. Hormones ready the body for pregnancy each month. Ovulation then takes place. The period concludes with the uterus losing its lining if no conception happens. That shedding is the time of menstruation.

The hormones that are responsible for this cycle originate in multiple body parts. A disorder can keep a person from having a period in any of these parts:

  • Hypothalamus, which regulates the gland of the pituitary.
  • The pituitary gland, which produces the hormones that instruct the ovaries to ovulate, is called the “master gland.”
  • Ovaries, which contain ovulation in the egg, and oestrogen and progesterone hormones.
  • Uterus, which reacts and prepares the lining for the hormones. If there is no conception, this padding will shed like the menstrual cycle.

What are the types of Amenorrhea?

Two classifications of amenorrhea exist:

  • Primary amenorrhea is when you have not received the first symptoms of puberty before the age of 15 or within five years. It may arise due to menstruation-related changes in muscles, glands and hormones.
  • Secondary amenorrhea is when you have normal intervals, then for at least three months, you stop having your cycle, or you stop your periods for six months when they have been intermittent before. Pregnancy, depression and sickness may be among the causes.

What causes Amenorrhea?

For a number of causes, amenorrhea may occur. During a woman’s lifespan, some are normal, while some may be a side effect of medicine or a symptom of a medical condition.

Natural amenorrhea:

You can experience amenorrhea for natural reasons during the normal course of your life, such as:

  • For breastfeeding
  • Mammary-feeding
  • Via menopause
  • The Contraceptives

There may not be cycles of certain women who take birth control pills. It may take some time before normal ovulation and menstruation resume, even after quitting oral contraceptives. Injected or injected contraception can also induce amenorrhea, as can certain kinds of intrauterine implants.

Medications:

Some drugs can interrupt menstrual cycles, including some types of:

  • Anti-psychotics
  • Chemotherapy Against Cancer
  • Antidepressant treatment
  • Drugs with Blood Pressure
  • Medications for allergies
  • Factors for Lifestyle

Lifestyle variables often lead to amenorrhea, such as:

Low body weight:

Excessively low body weight, around 10% under average weight, interrupts all of the body’s hormone processes, eventually blocking ovulation. Women who have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, because of these unexplained hormonal changes, also avoid getting cycles.

Excessive exercises:

The reproductive cycles of women who engage in events involving intensive preparation, such as ballet, can be disrupted. Several variables, including reduced body weight, fatigue and excessive energy consumption, combine to lead to the depletion of athletes’ times.

Stress:

The activity of your hypothalamus, a region of your brain that regulates the hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle, can be momentarily changed through mental tension. As a consequence, ovulation and menstruation can end. After the tension diminishes, normal menstrual cycles typically return.

Hormonal imbalance:

Hormonal imbalances can be caused by many forms of medical conditions, including:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS):

Rather than the fluctuating quantities found in the normal menstrual cycle, PCOS induces relatively elevated and persistent levels of hormones.

Thyroid Abnormalities:

Menstrual abnormalities, including amenorrhea, can be caused by overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).

Hypophyseal tumour:

The hormonal modulation of menstruation will interact with a noncancerous (benign) tumour in your pituitary gland.

Menopause prematurely. Typically, menopause starts at age 50. But for certain mothers, the delivery of eggs to the ovaries declines before the age of 40 and menstruation ends.

Structural Problems:

Amenorrhea can also be caused by complications with the sex organs themselves. Examples are:

Uterine scarring:

Asherman’s syndrome may also occur following dilation and curettage (D&C), caesarean section, or therapy for uterine fibroids, a disorder in which scar tissue builds up in the lining of the uterus. The natural aggregation and shedding of the uterine lining is avoided by uterine scarring.

Lack of organs for reproduction:

During foetal growth, complications often occur that lead to a girl being born without a significant part of her reproductive system, such as her uterus, cervix, or vagina. She cannot have menstrual cycles and her reproductive system has not evolved naturally.

Structural abnormality of the vagina:

Visual menstrual leakage can be stopped by blocking of the vagina. A membrane or wall that prevents the outflow of blood from the uterus and cervix may be present in the vagina.

What are the symptoms of Amenorrhea?

The main sign of amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea, you might experience other signs or symptoms along with the absence of periods, such as:

  • Milky nipple discharge
  • Hair loss
  • Headache
  • Vision changes
  • Excess facial hair
  • Pelvic pain
  • Acne

What are the Complications of Amenorrhea?

The amenorrhea risks can include:

Infertility. Infertility You will not get pregnant if you do not ovulate and have menstrual cycles.

With osteoporosis. You could also be at risk of osteoporosis, deterioration of your muscles if your amenorrhea is caused by low oestrogen levels.

What are the Risk Factors for Amenorrhea?

There may be causes that may raise the risk of amenorrhea:

  • Families. If amenorrhea has been encountered by other women in your family, you may have inherited a predisposition for the condition.
  • Disorders of eating. You have a greater chance of contracting amenorrhea if you have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia.
  • Athletic workout. Rigorous training in athletics can increase your risk of amenorrhea

How is Amenorrhea diagnosed?

Amenorrhea, not a disorder, is a complication. The doctor will try to figure out why menstruation does not happen.

Primary Amenorrhea:

If a person has not begun menstruating by the age of 16, a doctor will ask about his or her family background and conduct a series of tests.

These will provide measures to measure the concentrations of the following hormones:

Follicles Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

A physical evaluation may also be carried out by them.

Secondary Amenorrhea:

Try visiting a doctor if you have had daily periods before and then you had no menstruation for 3 months.

A secondary amenorrhea diagnosis will concentrate on the root cause of the issue.

The physician can ask questions before carrying out any tests to find out:

  • At what age did menstruation begin?
  • If the individual is sexually active
  • If pregnancy is an opportunity,
  • If there has been weight loss or weight gain, and what sort of workout regimen the person is pursuing
  • The length and regularity of the menstrual period and if there is heavy or mild bleeding

Based on what the cause seems to be, they may then prescribe a variety of studies.

This may include:

  • A Screening for Pregnancy
  • A functional thyroid exam
  • Test of ovary activity
  • Androgen and other checks for hormones

Tests for imaging can include:

  • A check for an MRI, CT, or ultrasound
  • A hysteroscopy, in which the practitioner moves a small, lit camera through the vagina and cervix to examine the interior of the uterus.

What is the treatment for Amenorrhea?

The therapy relies on your amenorrhea’s root cause. In certain cases, the menstrual periods will resume again with contraceptive pills or other hormonal therapies. Medications can be used to treat Amenorrhea, caused by thyroid or hypo physical conditions. If the issue is caused by a tumour or systemic blockage, surgery may be needed.

References:

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https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/3924-amenorrhea

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/215776

https://www.webmd.com/infertility-and-reproduction/guide/absence-periods#1

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amenorrhea/symptoms-causes/syc-20369299